Celiac disease is an inherited condition, meaning that genetics do play a role. The chances that a first degree relative (children, parents, siblings) of someone with celiac disease will develop the condition are significantly higher than they are among the general population. This is why it’s recommended that first degree relatives be screened. Different studies have shown a prevalence range of between 4 and 16 % among this group (compared to about 1 % in the general population). Among second degree relatives (e.g. nephews, nieces, grandparents) the prevalence is thought to be around 2.5%, so still significantly higher than among the general population. Screening is done via a simple blood test that tests for antibodies. Another thing to consider is genetic testing; if the genes necessary for celiac disease are not present, then future screening is not necessary. If the genes are present, but antibody tests are negative, it is important to be aware that celiac disease could still develop in the future (but also may never develop). In this case, the question of when future screenings should be done would be something to discuss with your personal healthcare provider.
Reference: University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center, 2015.